Archive for the 'Uncategorized' Category

Week of April 7th

This week was relatively productive. I discovered the name of the sculptor for the Powhatan statue Karen [Adda]. I gleaned this information from video footage of the statue unveiling ceremony in 2007 posted on youtube. This was an awesome source of  information about descriptive, spacial, and decorative aspects of the ceremony. I contacted Barry Trott at the Williamsburg Public Library to see if he could assist me in finding Karen’s contact information or if he had any knowledge about the statue that might be helpful.

Under Mr. Trott’s recommendation I contacted Professor McGlennon (W&M) who also serves on Williamsburg/James City County’s Board of Supervisors and served when the statue was proposed, unveiled, and currently sits while the second statue is being discussed. Professor McGlennon was very helpful and I may consider speaking with him about the statue. He provided me with contact information for two individuals I have been hoping to speak to about their involvement with the statue.

I have tried to contact Theresa Redd about American Indian curriculum in James City County Schools but she has not yet responded. I sent an email to the Rockefeller special collections to schedule a visit where I could examine old maps of Williamsburg and see if they had any information on the statue that I did not already have.



4/11 Work Summary

This past week had been a somewhat frustrating one. I felt confident going into the week after my meeting with Kate and discussion about the direction of the project. I made some progress on the secondary sources and other research, but I had been struggling with contacts and leads on interviews. Kate assisted me in finding some names and those contacts thus far have been somewhat successful. I had made plans to meet with a rabbi and visit the synagogue, but due to some miscommunication, the meeting has gotten pushed back until the following week. It was a bit of a let down, especially since I feel as though I will get a better grasp of my project once I physically experience the space for myself. This upcoming week will be a busy one, and I have plans to really move forward and cement some interviews.

Week of 3/31

This week was split half and half between some really good things and things I should probably work on in the run-up to the due date. Starting with the good, I finally got some formal interviews down this week! On Thursday, I traveled out to Fred Boelt’s house in Toano and interviewed him about his childhood home and the Williamsburg area. Hearing about the area around campus and how it’s changed in his time was really cool. And as cool as I thought he was before, Fred is actually way, way cooler. His house dates to the 1800s and he owns roughly 8 peacocks because of course he does. His interview provided some good perspective about Williamsburg and town-gown relations as it relates to the three-person rule.

I also interviewed Amanda Morrow, a senior who violates the three-person rule currently. Maybe it was just because she answered concisely, but the interview ran much shorter than I was anticipating at only 22 minutes. Even the very chatty Fred clocked in at 47 minutes. My list of prepared questions was already lengthy; I think I’ll have to work on coming up with more on the spot. In addition to those two oral histories, I also had two informational interviews with one student who serves on the planning commission and another who just lives off-campus in a normal house (a point of comparison to Amanda). Just getting started on interviews lifted a huge mental weight. I’ll have to keep at it next week as well.

Of course, the secondary research took a back seat to these matters again. I really need to get to that soon. Hopefully I can also make contact with some non-student renters as well, in addition to some resident homeowners. The number in the directory for Bill Dell is apparently a different Bill Dell than served on the Focus Group (or else he just doesn’t want to give me the time of day at all) and Flora Adams hasn’t called back yet. I’ll follow up with her soon.

Overall, a productive-ish week, but I feel like I won’t feel productive until this project is done.



Work Summary 3/23-3/28

This week was very productive overall although I still have not collected a recorded interview.  I spoke with Dr. Buck Woodward on Thursday and gained some extremely valuable insight and information from him about the statue of Powhatan in front of the JCC Court House. Since, I have done some research and contacted people in the city planning office who could be potential interviewees. Specifically interesting information that I learned from Dr. Woodward, is the discrepancies in the 1607 map that is situated in front of the Powhatan statue from historical maps of Indian tribes from that period. I hope to look at these sometime next week and may need to travel to Richmond to the Library of Virginia to view these maps.

I am still waiting on a response from the City planning office on where/when I can access the street names and park names in Williamsburg/JCC. Hopefully I will hear from them early next week. I was able to collect information about the educational curriculum used by JCC regarding Native American history, people, and culture. I am waiting to hear back from them with the actual curriculum guidelines and matierial. There may be a possible interviewee in that direction too, I am just still waiting to hear back.

The 3-Person Rule: Updated Bibliography

These resources are listed in addition to the prior bibliography given earlier in the year.

City of Williamsburg Directories, 1999-2011

Associated Press. “Williamsburg to continue talks on 3-person rule.” Pilot Online. Last modified June 15, 2009. Accessed March 14, 2014.

 City of Williamsburg. “City of Williamsburg Planning Department.” City of Williamsburg Planning Department. Last modified March 12, 2014. Accessed March 14, 2014.

———. “Focus Group on Rental Properties Near the College.” City of Williamsburg City Council. Last modified July 5, 2012. Accessed March 14, 2014.

———. “Focus Group Policy Q&A.” Focus Group on Rental Properties Near the College. Last modified March 11, 2013. Accessed March 14, 2014.

———. “2008 & 2009 Planning Commission Agendas and Minutes.” City of Williamsburg Planning Commission Meetings. Last modified May 13, 2010. Accessed March 14, 2014.

City of Williamsburg Planning Commission. City of Williamsburg 2013 Comprehensive Plan. Compiled by Sean Driscoll and Reed Nester. Williamsburg, VA: n.p., 2013.

College of William & Mary. “Off-Campus Housing.” William & Mary Reves Center. Last modified 2014. Accessed March 14, 2014.

MuniCode. “Sec. 21-619. Increase in residential occupancy for single-family detached dwellings.” MuniCode. Accessed March 14, 2014. CH21ZO_ARTIVSUDIRE_S21-619INREOCSIMIDEDW.

———. “Williamsburg, Virginia Codes and Ordinances: Part II – The Code: Chapter 21, Zoning.” MuniCode. Accessed March 14, 2014.

Student Renter’s Guide. Williamsburg, VA: City of Williamsburg, n.d.

Virginia Residential Landlord and Tenant Act, Va. Code Ann. (2011). Accessed March 14, 2014.

Won’t You Be My Neighbor?: Off-Campus Living at W&M – Tips for a Successful Partnership. Williamsburg, VA: W&M Dept. of Residence Life, n.d.

Native American Community Research Proposal

Williamsburg: A Space for Native American Community

The focus of The Williamsburg Documentary Project this semester is the use and reuse of place and space in and around Williamsburg. I hope to conduct a research project on the experience of the Williamsburg Native American community with insight and commentary through a spatial, locational, and geographic lens.

First, I want to know what different tribes or native nations, if any, are represented in Williamsburg. If there are members of these communities, I hope to look at if a community among the Native Americans exists despite varying tribes or nations. How does this community function as a whole and how members of different tribes interact with one another?  If a community among Williamsburg Native Americans does not exist I hope to explore reasons why. I also hope to explore how the Native American community functions within the larger Williamsburg area spatially, socially, and economically: both as individuals and as a group.

The following are some of the questions I hope to ask in my pursuit of primary information to serve as the most substantial component of my project. What type of spaces do Williamsburg Native Americans occupy? For example: residential, commercial, educational, or government space where members of the Native American community frequent, work, live, or own space. How do public and private spaces represent and/or characterize the Williamsburg Native American community and how do these spaces serve non-Native American members of the community? What characterizes the relationship between Williamsburg Native Americans and the City of Williamsburg? What characterizes the relationship between the spaces listed above and networks of people outside the Native American community?

After extensive research, there seems to be little to no work on the Native American community in Williamsburg since a report published in 1951 by in the Archeological Society of Virginia Quarterly Bulletin. Although this article is very dated, I hope to pull ideas and perspectives on Native Americans in the Williamsburg area from the 1950s and possibly compare and analyze them in next to the accounts I hope to collect from members of the community today. This will be a brief but very interesting element of my final paper.

The greater field of study on Native Americans living off the reservation is highly concentrated in medical and psychological journals that are primarily concerned with drug use, alcohol abuse and addiction, and effects or limitations to assimilation off the reservation. Much of this information includes the impact of racial stigmas, battles with addiction, and struggles with a “dual-identity,” one that confronts the everyday challenges to living as a Native American outside the reservation. I hope to compare these findings with those I uncover in the Williamsburg Native American community. Are these stigmas, challenges, and battles represented as present struggles or concerns for Williamsburg Native Americans? Why or Why not?

Another essential component of Native American identity and culture is the choice every Native American has to accept or deny his or her tribal or national identity as a native person. There are certain benefits and drawbacks of accepting tribal identity as well as denying it. I will discuss what guidelines each tribe I encounter and where federal government regulations stand on this issue to illuminate the ease or difficulty with which an individual can claim the benefits of their Native American identity. There are many instances of dissonance among siblings and families for a variety of reasons regarding taking on native identity thus if opportunity or time permits, exploring the reasons and experiences of accepting or denying American Indian heritage would be enlightening. Because of the Pamunkey reservation close-by, the Williamsburg area may indeed house a community of people choosing to distance themselves from tribal identity.

The primary source of information for my research will come from interviews with members of the Williamsburg community who either identify as Native American or who closely associate with members of the Williamsburg Native American community. These interviews will be conducted with myself and the interviewer assisted by a peer who will index the progression of the interview. I cannot limit my preferences for potential interviewees to a certain gender or age group because the most recent census report shows that the Native American community stands at around 1.2% of the Williamsburg population. I would like to speak with more than one person who is of age to speak knowledgeably with me about their observations and experiences among the community.

At anytime during the process of the project I guarantee every individual I ask to participate the ability to rescind his or her statements and interviews. If individuals wish to remain anonymous, pseudonyms will be noted and used in place of real names in every aspect of the published report. This will be confirmed in both verbal and written agreements before the interview. I also hope to present a copy of my report, electronic or manuscript, to each person who assisted with research, who gave oral interviews, and who aided me with valuable information or essential resources. Although I am collecting this information and writing a report on my findings, there is much more than just the work of one person that goes into a research project.

One of the greatest challenges I will encounter resides in collecting oral histories from Native American people in Williamsburg. I need to find people who are willing to speak with me and share their stories, opinions, and experiences. As I mentioned above, I am uncertain I will be able to identify and thus explore a Native American community in Williamsburg due to the small proportion of the population that they hold. Research provides little information and few contacts. I hope these few contacts will be fruitful resources to get in touch with people who could help me get into contact with individuals willing to share with a William and Mary undergraduate student.

Samuel R. Cook discusses in his article, Anthropological Advocacy in Historical Perspective: The Case of Anthropologists and Virginia Indians, the history of anthropological advocacy for Virginia Indian groups throughout the state and explains causes and effects of this political and social advocacy. I examine this paper to connect the greater effects of my own research in ethnography to the political and social benefits anthropological advocacy can bring to minority or ethnic group within a dominant white agenda. The American Indian Initiative within the Colonial Williamsburg Foundation has sought to incorporate a Native American presence in the living museum located in Colonial Williamsburg since 2004. I am more concerned with the presence of Native Americans in Williamsburg today rather than reenactments of Virginia Indians of the past. Although the living museum provides ample benefit to understanding the past, I wish to uncover the present. I believe that the condition of marginalized peoples from the past in the present is a ____ way to analyze and therefore comprehend the insistent presence of racial inequality within society today. By uncovering the conditions of the present in light of history, we are able to better understand how racial systems develop and persist. If we can understand this, these systems will be easier to prevent and dissolve in the future. Does identifying as a Native American change what it means to be from Williamsburg? Does living in Williamsburg change what it means to be a Native American?

I hope to present my final report along with all primary sources I collected including the audio recordings of interviews to William and Mary with a deed of gift.


Allen. Williamsburg Documentary Project, “Native American Representations at Colonial Williamsburg.” Accessed February 27, 2014.

Blume, G. W. J. “Present-day Indians of Tidewater, Virginia.” Quarterly Bulletin, Archeological Society Of Virginia 6, no. 2 (1951): 1-11. Anthropology Plus, EBSCOhost (accessed February 27, 2014).

Cook, Samuel R. “Anthropological advocacy in historical perspective: The case of anthropologists and Virginia Indians.” Human organization 62, no. 2 (2003): 193-201.

Garrett, Michael Tlanusta, and Eugene F. Pichette. “Red as an apple: Native American acculturation and counseling with or without reservation.” Journal of Counseling & Development 78, no. 1 (2000): 3-13.

Nagel, Joane. “American Indian ethnic renewal: Politics and the resurgence of identity.” American Sociological Review (1995): 947-965.

Phinney, Jean S. “When we talk about American ethnic groups, what do we mean?.” American Psychologist 51, no. 9 (1996): 918.

Thornton, Russell. “Tribal membership requirements and the demography of ‘old’and ‘new’Native Americans.” Population Research and Policy Review 16, no. 1-2 (1997): 33-42.

Waugaman, Sandra F., and Danielle Moretti-Langholtz. We’re still here: contemporary Virginia Indians tell their stories. Palari Pub, 2000.


Excuse me, did I hear you correctly?

Transcribing has been one of the most difficult tasks thus far because I wanted to be sure to capture the interviewee’s thoughts all the while trying to ignore the background. During the process, I found myself constantly rewinding and stopping trying to hear every word. Then I eventually realized there is no possible way for me to capture every word because of the heavy accent of the interviewee. The choices of punctuation proved to be another challenge sense the man had numerous pauses that prevented me in determining where one thought began and when another ended. The pauses as well as the places I could not understand him, I decided to just place uncertain in parentheses. Although much of my focus was on the interviewee, I realized I did not here the interviewer ask many questions and I was uncertain what the point of the conversation. The interviewee seemed to go on tangents and had little direction from the interviewer. I am interested in seeing what is the proper way to interview and transcribe.


This week I did not get nearly as done as I would have hoped. I have begun indexing my first interview with Coach Daly and I figured that while I was at it I should start transcribing that same interview. Once again I was reminded  how much I dislike transcribing…. however, it is part of the process and must be done. That is really all I have done this week sadly to say. This week I am trying to cram an interview with Chris Haywood into my schedule. I realize that since he is the biggest part of my interview I should have interviewed him first. Once I get that done I should be good to go for the paper.

I guess I shouldn’t sell myself too short though, I have begun organizing what I want my paper to be and where it will go. Much like Kalynn I have decided that my paper is going to be more of a report on what happened with a touch on why youth sports are necessary and how they impact the community. I haven’t found any great secondary sources but I am working with Miss Martha Higgins in Swem.

Tuesday: Received and listened to interviews with both Coach Daly and Albert

Wednesday: Gameday

Thursday: Began indexing Daly interview

Friday-Sunday: Games at ODU, wasn’t able to get much done.

April 15, 2013

I have finally gotten the ball rolling on my project, I had my first interview yesterday! And again, thanks to Kalynn who graciously agreed to index for me!

I interviewed Doug Austin about his time growing up here in Williamsburg, specifically his school years. He went to Bruton Heights for 5th and 6th grade, after it had become an integrated school. It was very interesting to me because although I had read that there was a time where it was a school for all children, Austin described it as kind of a continuation of his time at Matthew Whaley.

Mr. Austin has had an amazing life and I really enjoyed learning about it, but I specifically found his description of Williamsburg in the late 60’s/ early 70’s really cool. He spoke about not registering anything like racism on his radar until junior high school, after his time at Bruton Heights. He also talked about how progressive Williamsburg seemed to be during these times. He told us about all of the small businesses that used to be in CW, as well as a gay bar that was underneath the Green Leafe!

I think this interview will be extremely useful for my project, as Austin was in school here during a time where a lot was changing in the world and in Williamsburg. His interview will definitely give my project more dimension.

Tuesday: I prepared questions and other ideas that I wanted to touch on for Coach Al Albert. These questions ranged from his personal life to the importance of soccer in Williamsburg


Wednesday: This was a huge day for me! My interview with Coach Albert went extremely well. He did not have any trouble answering questions and he was extremely informative. One negative though, I forgot to turn on my microphone for the first 10 minutes or so. I realized this and turned it on immediately. Everything else was positve. First we started talking about how he came to William and Mary and we slowly moved through the organization of the Tidewater Soccer camp. After that we talked about who attended the camp and how it benefited their lives. I can not stress enough how important this day was for me. At the end he gave me a couple names that I should follow up with.


Thursday: Sent emails to the names Coach Albert gave me. One person was from WISC and the other is part of a law firm. Neither have gotten back to me.



Friday- Sunday: Baseball games, did not get to accomplish anything…



Checklist for upcoming week:

– Get in contact with WISC

– Transcribe interview with Coach Daly

– Interview J.T. Castner

– Find Secondary sources in Swem

Next Page »


The Williamsburg Documentary Project (WDP) strives to collect and preserve the rich past of Williamsburg, Virginia. By conducting oral history interviews, building physical and digital archives, and creating online exhibits, the WDP interprets Williamsburg’s recent past. The WDP works towards developing a better understanding of Williamsburg by bringing together individuals, local groups, Colonial Williamsburg, and the College of William & Mary.

Add Users

If you want to add yourself to this blog, please log in.