Archive for February, 2014

Keeping True To The Source

When working as a transcriptionist, I consider that my role is to capture what is being stated as accurately as possible.  If an interviewee is gracious enough to share their time, insights, and perspectives, then it is my duty to record those statements honestly.  This is not my interview, therefore my transcription should not reflect any of me if possible.  That said, I try to record exactly what I hear, including pauses and grammatical deficiencies.  If I am at all unsure about what I hear, then I make a note of that.  I do not try to interpret what the interviewee may or may not have meant, because I might get it wrong and that would do the interviewee great injustice.  Maintaining absolute accuracy not only demonstrates respect for the interviewee, it also establishes my own credibility as a transcriptionist and interviewer.


Putting Words into Words

This assignment proved a challenge for my historically poor hearing. My ears have been rather faulty my entire life, having persisted through near-constant ear infections and two rounds of surgery as a child to just not be deaf. Because of that, I think I’ve developed more of a reliance on non-verbal communication than most (which is already around 90%, right?) That was what I noticed most in my attempts to transcribe this oral history: how much communication I felt I was missing out on.

The interviewee was a Greek man who owned several restaurants in the Williamsburg area. His first name was Angelo, but I do not remember hearing his last. He spoke with a fairly strong accent, which proved challenging to depict in the text. Apart from my best guesses at some last names, I chose to not alter spellings of words to reflect his pronunciation of them. The history major in me wouldn’t allow it; historically, writing in dialect has been a standard way of depicting African-Americans and other people who don’t necessarily speak “properly” by an arbitrary definition as unintelligent and backwards. What I did stay true to, however, was his conjugation of verbs and omission of helping words, articles, and other such words. It seemed to be a good way to depict how he spoke in a non-offensive way.

Punctuation also became an issue in transcribing the clip. I realized while listening how people don’t typically speak in straightforward sentences. There are a great deal of pauses and stutters in conversations. I tried to depict those interruptions as much as possible, using dashes for more abrupt switches and ellipses for longer pauses.

Between the accent, the interruptions in speech, and the somewhat disjointed content within the clip itself, a fair amount of words and phrases were unintelligible. For those portions, I simply listed them as “unclear” within parentheses.

I’m eager to find out in class tomorrow if I did everything properly.

Williamsburg Bed & Breakfasts

1. “BED AND BREAKFAST OWNERS MEET.” Daily Press (Newport News, VA) 18 Jan. 1995, Williamsburg, Neighbors – Williamsburg: 4. NewsBank. Web. 7 Feb. 2014.

2. Boelt Family Papers, 1948-1975. N.d. MS. College of William & Mary, Williamsburg.The collection includes programs, leaflets, and other material of various Williamsburg events and organizations of the 20th century including the Williamsburg Festival, Heritage Inn, and others.

3. Casey, Carlton. Carlton Casey Papers, 1894-1999.N.d. MS. College of William & Mary, Williamsburg. The inventory is a guide to Mss. Acc. 1999.48 which is the postcard collection documenting pre-restoration Williamsburg, restored Williamsburg, Jamestown, the College of William and Mary, the University of Virginia, and cities, towns, and holidays in Virginia. Also includes clippings, articles, photographs, programs, and souvenir publications (Box 2).

4. “Colonial Williamsburg VA Lodging at The Cedars: A Romantic Williamsburg Bed and Breakfast.” Colonial Williamsburg VA Lodging at The Cedars: A Romantic Williamsburg Bed and Breakfast. N.p., n.d. Web. 07 Feb. 2014.

5. Evans Tourist Home Guest Book (Williamsburg, Va.), 1949-1955. N.d. MS. College of William & Mary, Williamsburg. Guest register of Evans Tourist Home located at 53 Indian Springs Road in Williamsburg, Virginia.  Operated by Mrs. R. H. Evans.  Includes 1943 Department of Health Permit and 1951 Jamestown Ferry schedule.

6. FREEDLAND, SETH. “BED AND BREAKFAST ALLOWED TO INCREASE ROOM OFFERINGS.” Daily Press (Newport News, VA) 16 Dec. 2006, Final, Local News: C3. NewsBank. Web. 7 Feb. 2014.

7. Guest Book (Williamsburg, Va.), 1957-1962.N.d. MS. College of William & Mary, Williamsburg. Guest book, possibly for a Williamsburg, Virginia guest house or tourist home.  One entry reads, “As a guest in the home of Dr. and Mrs. A. R. Armstrong”.

8. HOLTZCLAW, MIKE. “DESTINATION WILLIAMSBURG.” Daily Press (Newport News, VA) 24 Oct. 1997, Final, Local: A1. NewsBank. Web. 7 Feb. 2014.

9. Ierley, Merritt. Surveys and Responses Sent to Curators of Historic Houses in Conjunction with Merritt Ierley’s Book The Comforts of Home: The American House and the Evolution of Modern Convenience. N.d. MS. College of William & Mary, Williamsburg. Ierley is an alumnus of the College of William and Mary and works as a free-lance writer. The collection includes surveys sent to and responses from curators of historic houses for Ierley’s books, Open House and The Comforts of Home.

10. Kale, Wilford. “BED AND BREAKFAST CURB HELD UP AGAIN.” Richmond Times-Dispatch 9 Jun. 1989, One Star, Area/State: B-4. NewsBank. Web. 7 Feb. 2014.

11. Kaufman, Tammie J. Bed and Breakfasts in Virginia: Identification and Success Factors [abstract]. Blacksburg, Va.: Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, 1994.

12. United States Bed & Breakfast Inns Industry Report. Woolwich: Barnes Reports.

13. Vandeventer, Don. Inngetaways Virginia: A Photographic Guide to Bed & Breakfasts and Inns. Candler, NC: Down Home Publications, 1997.

14. Virginia: Virginia Bed & Breakfast Inns Welcome You. [S.l.: Country Inns, 1995.




Discovering Magruder – Linking a Lost Community To The Present

Preliminary Reference List

Burnham, Philip. The Disappearing Black Community of Williamsburg. The Voice Newspaper.  (Richmond, VA), 2012.  As the title suggests, this article examines the disappearance of the Williamsburg African American community through local witness testimony.

Casey, Carlton. 1999. Carlton Casey Papers (1894-1999).  Williamsburg, VA: Special Collections Research Center, Swem Library, College of William and Mary.  A collection of personal papers that includes early memorabilia of Camp Peary

Chapman, Anne T. 1954. Anne T. Chapman Papers (1884-1954). Williamsburg, VA: Special Collections Research Center, Swem Library, College of William and Mary.  A collection of personal papers that includes newspaper clippings referencing the USO at Camp Peary.

Foster, Andrea Kim. 1993. “They’re turning the town all upside down”: The Community Identity of Williamsburg, Virginia, Before and After the Reconstruction. Doctor of Philosophy dissertation, The George Washington University.  University Microfilms International (Ann Arbor, MI). 1993.  This dissertation contains information on the evolution of Williamsburg, with particular attention to relationship between the African American and Euro-American communities.

Magruder School Parent Teacher Association. 2008. Magruder School Parent Teacher Association Scrapbook (1949-1960). Williamsburg, VA: Special Collections Research Center, Swem Library, College of William and Mary.  This collection may provide information on potential witnesses to the developments that led to the arrival of Camp Peary and extinction of Magruder.

Oxrieder, Julia. Julia W. Oxrieder Papers (1877-1998). Williamsburg, VA: Special Collections Research Center, Swem Library, College of William and Mary.  Ms. Oxrieder’s personal papers document items/events of interest to her, including biographies, newspaper articles, and ephemera documenting local history including folklore, education, organizations and African Americans in Williamsburg.

Porter, Carl. 1942. December 10, 1942 Letter to the citizens of the Magruder area from Carl W. Porter, Commander, of the public works department, naval operating base about building a camp for the Seabees and citizens needing to vacate their homes. Williamsburg, VA: Special Collections Research Center, Swem Library, College of William and Mary. In addition to establishing a formal position from the group/s organizing the development of Camp Peary, it may provide a route to additional discoveries.

Unknown cartographer. 1938. Plat of A.W. Hitchen’s Farm, portion south of U.S. parkway in Bruton district.  Surveyed April 1938. Williamsburg, VA: Special Collections Research Center, Swem Library, College of William and Mary.   This map may provide visual affirmation of the Camp Peary site, prior to the construction of the base.

Ward, Archibald. 2004. Archibald F. Ward, Jr. papers (1939-2007). Williamsburg, VA: Special Collections Research Center, Swem Library, College of William and Mary..   Archibald Ward was a chaplain at Eastern State Hospital; his collection includes a notebook describing his experience with Magruder and Camp Peary.

Mattaponi Reservation

I decided to conduct my research on the Virginia Indians (Mattaponi Tribe) located on a native peoples reservation in West Point, Virginia. I have little knowledge about this group of people and would love to explore their relationship with the Williamsburg community and other groups outside of the reservation to determine the impacts of relocation and allocation of land. Below I have collected a substantial amount of information about Mattaponi history in the area in the recent and distant past. I hope to discover the state of Mattaponi ties with the surrounding area as well as local, state, and federal government institutions.



-provides a brief historical description of the Mattaponi and a relatively extensive description of the Mattaponi today; this cite also includes interactive videos and question and answer opportunities for those seeking more information on various tribes around Virginia




-this provides a few names that could lead to potential interviewees as well as current events at and around the reservation



-this provides a summary about the history of the Mattaponi tribe as well as a timeline of significant events in their history

-provides further academic resources listed below


4. Egloff, Keith, and Deborah Woodward. First People: The Early Indians of Virginia. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 2006.

-this provides historical context and present day information of the state and social conditions of Virginia Indians


5. Wood, Karenne, ed. The Virginia Indian Heritage Trail. Charlottesville: Virginia Foundation for the Humanities, 2008.

-this work provides information about the various tribes in Virginia and guides to the sites current and past that these groups have occupied



-this is a facebook page (with various contacts) focused on the Baptist Church that caters to the Mattaponi Indian Reservartion in West Point, Virginia


7. Cook, Samuel R. “Anthropological advocacy in historical perspective: The case of anthropologists and Virginia Indians.” Human organization 62.2 (2003): 193-201.

–       “In examining the demographic and political context in which anthropologists working with Virginia Indians have historically practiced their profession, it becomes clear that socially constructed boundaries, such as the state, can have a profound impact not only on the lives, histories, and realities of the indigenous peoples living within these limits, but on the professional conduct of anthropologists as well.”


8. Bara, Rachel. “Drowned Boy, and: Mattaponi Queen: Stories (review).” Prairie Schooner 86.1 (2012): 172-175.

–       “They explore their chosen regions through the fantasies, regrets, and actions of the people who live there. At the same time, through a careful ordering of stories and some overlapping characters, both Gabriel’s Drowned Boy and Boggs’s Mattaponi Queen: Stories acquire some of the scope of novels.”


9. County, Chickahominy-Charles City, et al. “State and Federal Recognition of Native American Tribes in Virginia.”

-this provides information on state and federal legal interaction with the Mattaponi including recognition and land grants


10. Forbes, Jack D. “Blood quantum: A relic of racism and termination.” The People’s Voice (2000): 1-2.

-this source focuses on apparent racism faced by Native peoples as well as the way these racist sentiments tie into the racist structures that prevailed in American history


11. United States. Congress. Senate. Committee on Indian Affairs (1993- ). Thomasina E. Jordan Indian Tribes of Virginia Federal Recognition Act: Hearing Before the Committee On Indian Affairs, United States Senate, One Hundred Seventh Congress, Second Session On S. 2694, to Extend Federal Recognition to the Chickahominy Tribe, the Chickahominy Indian Tribe-Eastern Division, the Upper Mattaponi Tribe, the Rappahannock Tribe, Inc., the Monacan Tribe, and the Nansemond Tribe, October 9, 2002, Washington, DC. Washington: U.S. G.P.O., 2003.

-this is a Senate hearing concerning Native Virginia tribes legal recognition


  1. Bagaeen, S., and O. Uduku. Gated communities: Social sustainability in contemporary and historical gated developments. UK: Cromwell Press Group, 2010. Print.
  2. Blakey, Edward J. Fortress America: Gated Communities in the United States. Brookings Institution Press, 1997. Print.
  3. Colonial Williamsburg, Inc.,. Planning for the long term: (a special communication from Colonial Williamsburg relating to the background and rational for sale of the Kingsmill property to Anheuser-Bush, Inc. Williamsburg: The Foundation, 1970. Print.
  4. Dunn, William. “Guardedly Republican: The Voting Behavior of Gated Community Residents in Williamsburg-James City County in the 2006 and 2008 Elections.” Conference Papers — Midwestern Political Science Association., 2009. 1. Academic Search Complete. Web.
  5. Glass, Anne Cary. An Ecological Interpretation of Food Remains at the Kingsmill site, James City County, Virginia. 1974. Print.
  6. Kelso, William M. Historical Archaeology at Kingsmill. 1973-1977. Print.
  7. Kelso, William M. Kingsmill Plantations, 1619-1800: Archaeology of Country life in colonial Virginia. Orlando: Academic Press, 1984. Print.
  8. Low, Setha M. Behind the Gates: life, security, and the pursuit of happiness in forstress America. Routledge, 2003. Print.
  9. Wells, Camille. Kingsmill Plantation: A Cultural Analysis. 1976. vii, 133. Print.

Only The Flat Hat Cares About This

Chiglinsky, Katherine. “What’s the Future of the Three-Person Rule?” The Flat Hat (Williamsburg, VA), November 12, 2012, News. Accessed February 6, 2014.

The Flat Hat (Williamsburg, VA). “3-Person Rule to Stay in City’s Proposal.” October 16, 2009, Uncategorized. Accessed February 6, 2014.

The Flat Hat (Williamsburg, VA). “4-Person Rule in B-3 District.” November 20, 2009, Uncategorized. Accessed February 6, 2014. 11/20/72211/.

The Flat Hat (Williamsburg, VA). “Commission Decides Against 4-Person Proposal.” September 25, 2009, Uncategorized. Accessed February 6, 2014.

The Flat Hat (Williamsburg, VA). “Staff Editorial: Outrageous Rental Plan.” January 22, 2008, Editorial. Accessed February 6, 2014. staff-editorial-outrageous-rental-plan/.

The Flat Hat Editorial Board. “A Balanced Solution: The Future of the Three-Person Rule.” The Flat Hat (Williamsburg, VA), November 12, 2012, Editorial. Accessed February 6, 2014.

———. “Cooperation Is Key: City Council’s 2013 Comprehensive Plan Will Benefit Both The College And The City.” The Flat Hat (Williamsburg, VA), January 21, 2013, Opinions. Accessed February 6, 2014. williamsburg-city-council-comprehensive-plan-housing/.

———. “End Antiquated Rule.” The Flat Hat (Williamsburg, VA), April 12, 2013, Editorial. Accessed February 6, 2014. williamsburg-city-council-three-person-rule/.

The Flat Hat Staff. “Staff Editorial: Housing Hypocrisy in the City of Williamsburg.” The Flat Hat (Williamsburg, VA), February 20, 2007, Editorial. Accessed February 6, 2014.

Kennedy, Amber Lester. “Citizens Turn Out to Push Approval of City Comp Plan.” WY Daily. Last modified January 11, 2013. Accessed February 6, 2014.

Needham, James. “Proposed City Law Lets B&B Owners Hire Live-In Managers.” WY Daily. Last modified November 21, 2013. Accessed February 6, 2014.

WY Daily Staff. “Planning Comm. Doesn’t Like 4-Person Rule.” WY Daily. Last modified September 23, 2009. Accessed February 6, 2014.


Preliminary Bibliography

1. “Encyclopedia of Southern Jewish Communities: Williamsburg, Virginia.” The Goldring/Woldenberg Institute of Southern Jewish Life. N.p., n.d. Web. <>.

2. Ginsberg, Louis. Chapters On the Jews of Virginia, 1658-1900. Petersburg, Va.: Cavalier Press, 1969.

3. Urofsky, Melvin I., Virginia Historical Society, and Jewish Community Federation of Richmond.Commonwealth and Community: The Jewish Experience in Virginia. Richmond, Va.: Virginia Historical Society and Jewish Community Federation of Richmond, 1997.

4. Rowe, Linda H. Brief Information About Jews in Early America and Williamsburg.

5. Ivers, Gregg. To Build a Wall: American Jews and the Separation of Church and State. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1995.

6. Kaganoff, Nathan M., Melvin I Urofsky, and American Jewish Historical Society. “Turn to the South”: Essays On Southern Jewry. Charlottesville: Published for the American Jewish Historical Society by the University Press of Virginia, 1979.

7. Richmond Jewish Community Council., and Marilyn Greenberg. Through the Years: A Study of the Richmond Jewish Community. [Richmond, Va, 1955.

8. Ely, Carol., et al. To Seek the Peace of the City: Jewish Life in Charlottesville, an Exhibition Catalog. Charlottesville, Va.: Hillel Jewish Center at the University of Virginia with Congregation Beth Israel, 1994.

9. Valentine Museum., and Jewish Community Federation of Richmond. Free to Profess: The First Century of Richmond Jewry, 1786-1886. Richmond, Va,: The Museum, 1986.

10. Student Organizations Collection, Special Collections Research Center, Earl Gregg Swem Library, College of William and Mary. Box 18: Religious Organizations: Inter-Y.

Preliminary Research Ideas

1. The Hispanic immigrant communities of Williamsburg — I remember reading an article about these communities in Williamsburg in either the Virginia Gazette or the Daily Press within the past year, and I found it really interesting. What attracted these people to Williamsburg? Did anything push them here? What do they like or dislike about this town? Why do they stay?
2. The development of High Street — High Street has a bunch of successful businesses, but also a bunch of vacant retail space, an unused parking deck, and a bunch of empty housing lots. What went wrong, why, what are people doing about it now?
3. Off-campus “brothel” rule — I know it has to do with the College, but I was going to research the roots about the no-more-than-4-unrelated-people to an off-campus house rule, residents’ and students’ opinions on it, and how it’s been changed recently (I think I remember something about that).
4. Foreign workers at Busch Gardens — When I went to Busch Gardens when I was much younger, I remember there were a bunch of foreign student workers there, probably to increase the “European”-ness of the park. Why do these students come to Williamsburg and work at Busch Gardens? What is the work like? What kind of connections do they form to the park, their co-workers, the city?

Rose Preliminary Research Ideas

When approaching any research project I try and combine my general and personal interests with something I can also appreciate academically. I would love to know more about the music community in Williamsburg. Norfolk and Richmond are the closest cities with a solid concert and festival scene; Williamsburg does not possess a specific place or venue where music is the central focus. I would love to explore the rest of the community to see where music is played or has been played in the past and explore why the music community in Williamsburg, even with the young college population is not stronger. To begin preliminary research, I hope to talk to the AMP music committee, members of the global film festival, and various peers at William and Mary who grew up in the Williamsburg community.

I hope to discover recent historical state of the Williamsburg community, the venues around the Williamsburg city limits where music is preformed, conserved, studied, and appreciated in a public forum. There are small-scale concerts held at the Williamsburg library on Scotland Street, at the Corner Pocket in New Town, and at Aromas near the College. I do not have a particular genre of music that I specifically want to focus on because Williamsburg is small enough that I hope to provide a comprehensive history of all types of music in Williamsburg. I want to research places in Williamsburg where music is appreciated because I believe that music is something that people of all backgrounds can come together and enjoy. Within a community, I believe places of music reinforce the community as a whole.

The college holds concerts a few times a semester and the student body generally dominates attendance. I would like to explore exactly what percentage of attendance of concerts held by the college is the Williamsburg community outside of the students. I think there seems to be a division between the residents of Williamsburg and the students at the College because of age and place in life. This is visible in the music interests and venues. This division is something I would like to explore, along with the general interaction of students and Williamsburg residents, through the lens of music in the general Williamsburg area.

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The Williamsburg Documentary Project (WDP) strives to collect and preserve the rich past of Williamsburg, Virginia. By conducting oral history interviews, building physical and digital archives, and creating online exhibits, the WDP interprets Williamsburg’s recent past. The WDP works towards developing a better understanding of Williamsburg by bringing together individuals, local groups, Colonial Williamsburg, and the College of William & Mary.

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